During this tech boom, is it a coincidence that the tech savvy San Francisco Giants are in the World Series for the third time since 2010? In this post, we take a look at the relationship of technology, leadership, big data analytics, and baseball. In particular, we explore how Major League Baseball manages its player/patient population, and the trends they are following since converting players from paper medical records to EHR.
Baseball teams are very secretive about how they use their data. Teams, like the San Francisco Giants, employ a slew of data analysts and data tools, but every team is reluctant to share how data is used, and where they derive insights. According to the 2014 SABR Analytics Conference, the new frontier of baseball data is not just about scouting players, but keeping players healthy and injury-free. The new area of research, just in in its infancy, is marrying baseball statistics with medical injury research.
Medical analysts are the new data darlings of baseball operations.
Chris Marinak, Sr. Vice President of Major League Baseball, implemented MLB’s switch to electronic medical records, and believes medical injury research will provide new insights over the next five or ten years,
I actually joined MLB in 2008, and I was shocked to see that we didn’t have a system for tracking injuries or medical information at a de-identified level. We were literally keeping a lot of paper documents and putting them into a filing cabinet. It was time for us to get into the 21st century.
So starting in the 2010 season, we rolled out an electronic medical records system working with the players’ association that allows our medical staff to enter in medical information on every single player injury and the treatments that those players get. And then that information is all stored in one place, so that when you go from one team to the next, it flows along with you.
Marinak says the ancillary benefit is that MLB now has an injury tracking system where they can track trends in the industry.
This data is analyzed at a de-identified level to find the drivers of lost time, and the injuries keeping players off the field. “So we can hopefully keep them healthier,” according to Marinak.
Baseball is a sport that has always been hungry for statistics. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball’s in-game play, has been around since the middle of the 20th century. But in 2002 and 2003, Sabermetrics became “Moneyball” as the Oakland As advanced to the playoffs with their analytic approach to assembling a competitive team, despite a lack of competitive dollars.
With the advent of new technologies, PITCHf/x data and Sportsvision video in 2006, the world of baseball was set to explode with big data and predictive analytics. Detailed data became accessible for every hit and pitch in a game.
Batting and pitching biomechanics also started to be video analyzed at the high school level. In 2009, my son clocked an official bat speed of 101 miles per hour, one of the fastest recorded bat speeds in the country for any amateur or professional player.
Bat speed is recorded via a static ball test, hitting off of a tee; exit speed is recorded hitting a pitched ball.
An injury sidelined his play, so he started experimenting with this new PITCHf/x data. His early web-based program would let you compare MLB pitchers and batters, and team matchups. Having baseball experience would help him provide insights for an individual player’s performance enhanced by data visualizations like heat maps.
Although PITCHf/x stated its data could not be used for commercial purposes, it didn’t take long for the financial world to play ball – Bloomburg Sports was born in 2011. The company’s latest technology (recently sold) has the capability to create every imaginable data point from video captured from play performance, whether that video is captured live or from a stream.
Do you want to know how many times a player licks his lips before fielding a ball? – Dan Cohen, Bloomberg Sports
Dr. Glenn Fleisig of the American Sports Medicine Institute says they look at what a person’s body is doing and that’s what biomechanics is, “Tracking where the ball went is all good, but we look at how did their body get there. The new thing teams are embracing is biomechanics.” More information will come from wearable tech and self-tracking technologies.
MLB is doing a lot more tracking of player movements utilizing Trackman and through studies at MIT. Marinak says having more of that information publicly available will be important to innovation, but right now it’s just too big, “A game’s worth of data in Trackman is 7 terabytes. So we’re talking about big data at a massive scale.” He cautions that how this data is treated will be different because it is medical information, and keeping a player’s medical information needs to be private.
Dr. Stan Conte (formerly with the SF Giants and now with the Los Angeles Dodgers) is a leading expert in medical injury research in baseball. He says they focus on “changes” in the data. He explains medical data is dirty data, so it is very difficult to analyze.
The data is getting better, and with more data, we’ll be able to go into areas that we hadn’t thought about before. – Dr. Stan Conte
But now that PITCHf/x also tracks every defensive play, it has been reported that the San Francisco Giants do defensive shifts better than all MLB teams. Is the team’s proximity to Silicon Valley, and its innovative CIO, its World Series advantage? Or is it their overall focus on innovation?
The San Francisco Giants are dedicated to enriching our community through innovation and excellence on and off the field.
In 2004, the SF Giants were the first to offer Wi-Fi throughout their stadium. Today, approximately 35% of fans are online at games. The stadium’s “fat pipe” allows fans to easily upload content via the Giants app or social channels like Faceboook, Twitter, and Instagram.
In 2009, SF Giants CIO Bill Schlough introduced dynamic ticket pricing (DTP), allowing the price of game tickets to go up or down depending on popularity and availability. Other teams now use DTP, and the idea has spread to restaurants, movie theaters, and the performing arts.
— #OctoberTogether (@SFGiants) June 24, 2014
This year, the SF Giants opened a 4,320 sq. ft. edible garden and restaurant, affectionately called the “kale garden”, that sits overlooking center field. In addition to providing healthy fare for fans and players, the innovative garden will be used as an open-air classroom for students during the Giants’ off-season, where Bay Area youth will go to learn about sustainability, urban farming and healthy eating.
Gaining respect early as a technology leader was key for Schlough’s career, as the Giants let him run his own department with the ease and precision he wanted to do it in. It’s tremendous the impact Schlough has had on the Giants, but eventually that impact will affect the MLB as a whole. – Justin Kasser
Now, let’s play ball!
First, do no harm.
Four simple words that are synonymous with healthcare. It’s a principle that everyone in the industry – not just physicians – should adhere to.
So shame on us all for our part in allowing an EHR vendor to shut off a practice’s access to their patients’ medical records and for recklessly putting patients at risk.
Background: Full Circle Health Care in Maine purchased an EHR from HealthPort in 2010. Originally the maintenance fees were $300 a month. A few months later CompuGroup Medical purchased HealthPort and increased the maintenance fees to $2,000 a month. The practice protested the price increase and claimed CompuGroup failed to deliver hardware upgrades that had been paid for. The parties spent several months arguing and for 10 months the practice did not pay its maintenance bills. Finally in July, CompuGroup shut off the practice’s access to its medical records.
The details as to why the fees jumped so much and whether CompuGroup had the legal right to do so are a little unclear. What is clear is that multiple parties are at fault for allowing such a mess to occur.
Let’s start with the government, which created the HITECH program and promised thousands of dollars for providers willing to adopt and meaningfully use EHRs. Though the objectives were admirable, CMS failed to adequately address all the “what if” scenarios in its rush to move the program forward. The legislation and final rule provide no guidelines for protecting patient records in the event of a vendor/provider disagreement, financial hardship, or business discontinuance. Undoubtedly we’ll see plenty more disputes like this one in the coming years.
The practice also gets a share of the blame. The owner should have invested in legal advice before signing a $72,000 contract for something as critical as an EHR system. Did she skip this step in her haste to achieve Meaningful Use and earn incentive payments? Furthermore, even if she disputed the increase in maintenance pricing, shouldn’t she, at a minimum, have continued paying the $400 a month fee she believed was the correct amount? Perhaps the vendor would have been more willing to come to an acceptable agreement if she hadn’t stopped paying altogether.
CompuGroup, of course, looks like the really bad guy here. The multi-national company has annual revenues of about $600 million. Did they really need to pull the plug on this practice over a piddling $40,000? The company’s general counsel says the situation is similar to an electric company shutting off power when a customer fails to pay. Perhaps, but many municipalities and some states have laws that prohibit the discontinuance of services under certain conditions, such as in extreme cold weather or when a child or sick person is in residence. In other words, there are laws to protect consumers against potentially harmful actions. (See: EHRs And The Law: When Interoperability Isn’t a Choice)
Which brings us to the seemingly forgotten patient, who arguably is – or should be – the owner of his or her own record. We do have federal and state laws that give patients the right to access and inspect their medical records. Perhaps the practice’s 4,000 patients should all send CompuGroup a written request for a copy of their records. Maybe an attorney who is smarter than me should look into that.
Until the mess is settled, we have a practice seeing patients without the benefit of medication and allergy lists, details on previous treatments, or lab and test results. And everyone involved is hoping that no patients are harmed.
Whether our role in healthcare is policy maker, technology developer, provider, or HIT geek, we really need to do better.
Industrial designer Marc Harrison suffered a brain injury while sledding when he was 11-years old. The injury and years of rehabilitation would provide Harrison with insight and inspiration for his future work in industrial design.
Harrison would go on to develop the philosophy of Universal Design – the idea that products should be developed for people of all abilities, not just for people of average size, shape, and ability.
Harrison’s study of people with disabilities led to the iconic design of the Cuisinart food processor, a design still relevant today after more than 40 years. The simple, clean design would also come to be a major influence for Steve Jobs in the development of the Macintosh computer.
If you put the original Mac in 1984 side-by-side with an early ’80s Cuisinart, the influence on the physical design of the Mac is immediately obvious. Not only is the Mac designed with software for accessibility and more universal design, but its physical design had this perhaps unknown influence as well. – Dean Karavite
I learned about Harrison from an exceptional interview with Dean Karavite, a Human Interaction Specialist in Clinical Informatics at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Dean was interviewed by Whitney Quesenbery, co-author of the book, “A Web for Everyone”.
It is important to point out that people with disabilities are not all people in poor health.
People with disabilities use the health care system a lot and in many different ways. –Whitney Quesenbery
Among study participants with various levels of disability, Dean found that people with the highest level of needs – those also with many chronic conditions – were the source of “the most detailed, sophisticated, and innovative ideas on what an accessible PHR should do.”
Understanding what users want and the problem the application will solve should be the first step in any development process. How does user-centered design firm IDEO find people to interview for needfinding? While it is great to speak with average users, the most interesting interviews come from “extreme users.” This idea of extreme users is also explored in “Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility throughout Design” by Shawn Henry.
As part of our project exploring accessible Personal Health Records, one of the methods we have applied was performing a survey with 150 people with different disabilities. In that survey, we had our participants rate over 20 health topics in two ways.
First, in terms of how important the particular topic was to their health and healthcare, and second, their current level of satisfaction with a particular issue or topic.
The number one, most highly rated issue in terms of importance was the ability to share medical information between different providers’ offices, and hospitals.
The real underlying issue here isn’t just the transfer of data, but care coordination, which is the collaboration, not just communication, but collaboration between multiple healthcare providers. – Dean Karavite interview with Whitney Quesenbery
Another part of the “Accessibility Designs” project looked to assess the current state of PHR systems for accessibility, functionality and usability.
Unfortunately, vendors were reluctant to participate.
These results came from systems project team members used to manage their own health including a hospital PHR, an ambulatory PHR, and a consumer PHR.
According to the project, “The hospital PHR was the least functional and least usable, yet was the most accessible. Meanwhile the ambulatory PHR was the most functional and most usable, yet failed to meet basic accessibility standards. The consumer PHR was quite usable despite failing to meet accessibility criteria, and failed one crucial accessibility requirement: the entry of dates by people with visual and/or physical disabilities, a critical action required by almost every task managed by the system.”
Many of the technologies used today are the result of work used to meet the needs of people with disabilities:
“For example, touch screens, on-screen keyboards with word prediction, zoomable displays, speech recognition, text-to-speech. Think about it. It took about 10 to 15 years, and now we all have it on our computers, our phones and other devices, and we absolutely love it.” – Dean Karavite
Get out of your little box and look for inspiration all over the place.
Good ideas can come from anywhere!
I’ve been writing a lot about the benefits of patient-centered-care and patient engagement.One study published in Health Affairs examined the relationship between “patient activation levels” (which could also be called patient engagement) and care costs. In a companion piece to the study, the authors wrote that “patients who were more knowledgeable, skilled and confident about managing their day-to-day health have lower health care costs than those patients who lacked this type of confidence and skill.”
One great example of patient education not exactly hitting the mark and leaving the patient not fully engaged was told to me by a diabetic educator. I had gone for a consultation and education on how to manage a gestational diabetes diagnosis. After going over all the blood glucose values, when and how to test, when to be alarmed, etc., she asked me what I would do if I had three readings with numbers above my blood glucose level goal.
“Call my doctor,” I said. Her reply, “Excellent. You’d be surprised how many people keep great logs of their glucose readings but don’t call anyone when their levels are too high.” They understood that they were to track their glucose levels but didn’t realize they needed to report abnormal results to someone.
How can clinicians get patients to understand the nuances of their care so they will make those necessary phone calls? How can we educate patients so they understand the “whys” of the interventions and the steps they need to take to achieve their goals? To me, explaining they need to do a certain task or get a certain reading isn’t enough. They need to have some rational behind why it is important and what will be done with the information they gather.
Here are four interesting ways I found to help patients better understand care, interventions and concepts. I hope clinicians find these useful in educating and engaging their patients.
I hope you find these tools useful in engaging and education your patients. And please share your favorite tools for increasing patient engagement in the comments section.
Case in point: A few months ago I bought a one-cup coffee maker—not the style that has been around awhile but a newer model that has additional settings to make the coffee stronger. The coffee is still not quite as good as my all-in-one grind and brew coffee machine, but I love the convenience. Unfortunately the model is so new that none of my local grocery stores carry the proper-sized coffee packs, so I have resorted to buying the coffee packs online. It’s not that buying online is that big of a hassle, but I may have selected a different model if I had realized that online was my only option.
Of course anyone working in health IT understands the phenomenon of unforeseen wrinkles with new-and-improved solutions. Many moons ago I sold billing systems to physician offices. At one point my primary job was to convince customers on an older legacy platform to upgrade to the latest product. NewProduct had many more bells and whistles than OldProduct so initially customers were eager to make the switch.
A few months into the migration project, however, we realized that NewProduct was missing a few of the nifty functions that customers had loved in OldProduct. We couldn’t move the clients back to OldProduct so we had to suggest various workarounds until the missing features could be incorporated in a later release of NewProduct. Despite all the enhancements in NewProduct, I am sure quite a few customers would have delayed upgrading if they had been aware of the loss of functionality.
More recently, a physician shared some of her concerns with her practice’s new patient portal. While she recognized and appreciated the many benefits of online scheduling, secure patient communication, and patient access to test results, etc., she disliked how the portal added more “noise” to her electronic in-box. She already received a steady stream of various electronic tasks generated by her EMR; having the portal feed her additional tasks left her feeling frustrated and overwhelmed. She had underestimated how much she personally would be impacted by the portal’s implementation.
Whether the new-and-improved product is a coffee maker, billing system, or patient portal, end users don’t like discovering issues that decrease the product’s perceived value and efficiency. Even when workarounds are available, and even when the advantages of the new outweigh the old, no one likes to be surprised by a negative. Unfortunately many wrinkles are unforeseen by those developing, selling, or using the products.
In a perfect world, end users would be fully aware of any product limitations before making a purchase. Since the world is not perfect, often the best course of action for technology developers, suppliers, and users is to figure out how make the best of the situation. Most wrinkles can be ironed out – unless, of course, your coffee maker only makes tea. A few quick tips, should your new-and-improved solution include any surprises:
I admit that on occasion I miss my old and non-enhanced coffee maker – especially when I run out of my fancy coffee packs and can’t run to the grocery store to buy more. Thank goodness there’s always Starbucks.